In a laboratory, there are many vessels which are used for keeping liquid chemicals. Reactions are also made feasible by mixing compounds with certain reagents specific types of vessels. The well-known equipment that is frequently used for testing chemicals in laboratories is the very familiar test tubes. But test tubes are generally made of glass and are not suitable for certain kinds of chemical testing. There are certain types of testing which have to do in specially designed tubes. This implies that the reagent in kept in specifically designed vessels that are suitable for handling the biochemical procedure successfully.
Defining the mechanism of artificial DNA cloning
For the purpose of scientific research human DNA is elaborately studied. In the attempt to clone certain segments of human DNA a biochemical procedure is present which is known as Polymerase Chain Reaction which is abbreviated as PCR. There is a thermal cycler also termed as a thermocycler which is the machine present in a laboratory and used for DNA amplification. Inside the thermocycler, the polymerase chain reaction is created. The apparatus has apertures for inserting tubes which contains the mixture for the reaction.
Understanding the steps involved in a PCR relation
The reaction that occurs inside a thermocycler due to PCR mechanism consists of three notable stages; these are given below:
- Denaturing – The DNA has two strands which are joined together by connector bands and the whole structure resemble like a looped ladder. In the denaturing step, the DNA contained in PCR tubes are heated. The tubes are tightly capped and made from polypropylene which allows the even distribution of heat. The heat breaks the bonds between the stands and separates the whole structure into two.
- Annealing – In the next step when the DNA is already broken down into two stands the temperature of the ensuing reaction is lowered. This enables primers of DNA to join the DNA template.
- Extending – In the final step, the temperature is increased so that the newly formed DNA strand can be achieved with the aid of Taq polymerase enzyme.
Helpful information about the specific uses of PCR tubes
PCR tubes hold the PCR reagents are kept in the tubes particularly made for this kind of reaction. The tubes are either available as individual tubes having a flip on the cap or can be found in a series from where eight or more tubes are joined together in a line. The capacity of these types of tubes is not more than 0.2ml. Colored versions of the tubes are also available in the market along with the transparent ones.
The tubes which are fitted with flat or dome-shaped caps but the flat cap ones are more suitable for use in a variety of laboratory instruments. Reusable tubes are also present which can be used for chain reactions again and again. The durability of the tubes is very high, and so the effect of heat doesn’t affect the structure of the tubes.